Skepsi

Obligatory "Hello World!" and Reflections on CS

June 15, 2014 Read time: ~6 mins computer-science

Hello! Здравствуйте! こんにちは!Unicode test!

If you can read that, then congratulations! Your OS/browser is not broken.

I finally took the plunge and created a blog. Here I hope to be able to materialize and archive information on topics that I learn about or find interest in, and perhaps even explore some original ideas of my own. Thus, without further ado…

Hello world!

Phew.

Instead of diving into further introductory ceremony, I think it best to begin with a reflection on what in all likelihood will be the core topic that I will be writing about.

Computer Science

Ah, yes. Computer science. The arcane art pursued by many a young and old alike, and at the same time the most contemporary coolness permeating the world of tech.

The beginnings of computer science, though, had a slightly shifted focus. The days of startups, enterprise systems, and big data were in the distant future. At the time, the areas of study were, naturally, more fundamental. From Ada Lovelace, who is credited with writing the first algorithm designed for a computational machine, to Alan Turing, a mathematician who defined a hypothetical universal computer and used it to prove certain properties about computability, early computer science was explored largely from a mathematical perspective. As electronic computers began to be manufactured, the practical applications of computer science became increasingly relevant, and computer science as a field expanded to a multitude of subdisciplines.

Today, computer technology and software development have become integral parts of society. Programming, besides conjuring up stereotypical images of sunlight-deprived individuals sitting in front of a monitor hacking away on a massive keyboard, has become an important industry profession. This has naturally led to certain levels of specializations (e.g. web, system, graphics, etc.) among most aspects of programming, including jobs, languages, and tooling.

A consequence of this, though, is that it not all fields of programming require deep knowledge of the classic fundamental aspects of computer science for day to day work.

Well, we can’t have that, now, can we?

Areas of Interest

The disciplines that make up computer science can be broadly classified as either theoretical computer science or applied computer science. As the name suggests, applied computer science includes topics and ideas that can be directly used in practical contexts. Theoretical computer science, of course, is often of interest to researchers. However, certain fields of study – namely, algorithms and data structures – are highly useful, even considered essential, for the reason that they define the fundamental primitives that most industry professionals use on a daily basis.

And, of course, both forms of computer science are extremely interesting.

The following is a listing (in no particular order) of a few of the disciplines which constitute (in my opinion) the most interesting and useful parts of computer science and programming.

  • Algorithms and Data Structures

    Algorithms are the building blocks of computations. They are a logical, mechanical sequence of actions or evaluations that result in the calculation of some desired value. Data structures are the organizational blocks of data, designed with efficiency as the goal.

    Although both subjects can be studied independently, they are deeply related and are often grouped together. The book by Niklaus Wirth even declares:

    Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs

    Most, if not all, other computer science disciplines make heavy use of complex algorithms and data structures and, thus, a solid understanding of algorithms and data structures is vital for deep endeavors into other areas of computer science.

  • Cryptography

    Cryptography is the study of techniques used for secure communication and authentication. In the modern age of the Internet and anonymous peer-to-peer networks, cryptographic primitives are (or should be) used in virtually any kind of communication.

    A basic, well-rounded understanding of how to use known and proven cryptographic methods is extremely useful, particularly in any network-facing applications. However, the standard counsel on this subject is worth repeating: unless one is an expert, one should not attempt to create one’s own security scheme in a production system, as there are far too many crippling security mistakes that can be made.

    Of course, if the goal is to learn – or just to have fun – then cryptography offers a myriad of interesting algorithms to explore.

  • Programming Languages

    The design of programming languages is a discipline which intimately blends theory and practice. The techniques and research of the field affect all software developers in the form of the compilers and interpreters that are used day to day.

    As programming languages are the primary tools for software developers, knowledge of their design and implementation – concepts like type theory, generics, and metaprogramming – can greatly aid in a developer’s ability to use their preferred languages skillfully.

  • Artificial Intelligence

    Likely the single broadest subfield in this list, artificial intelligence is the study and design of machines and programs which exhibit behaviors that akin to those of intelligent agents. This includes topics such as machine learning, natural language processing, computer vision, and robotics.

    Many forms of AI are heavily mathematical, but it is far from being just a theoretical field. In fact, AI is particularly prominent in video games where it is used to construct the behaviors of non-player characters, among other things.

  • Computer Graphics

    As it turns out, computer graphics are – surprise! – also highly prominent in video games. In particular, rasterization is currently the dominant approach used whenever interactivity is required. In other contexts, different (generally slower) techniques, such as ray tracing, can be used to obtain extremely photorealistic images.

    Computer graphics relies on mathematics such as basic linear algebra, which is used to represent and transform geometry, as well as models of light propagation and diffusion, which is used for shading.

  • Software Engineering

    Although arguably not quite a form of engineering yet, a body of knowledge, through both research and industry practice, exists on the design, construction, and maintenance of computer programs. Collectively, these techniques are sometimes known as “software engineering,” and are exceptionally essential to professional programmers. In describing the driving goal for software engineering practices, Steve McConnell summarizes it as follows:

    Managing complexity is the most important technical topic in software development. In my view, it’s so important that Software’s Primary Technical Imperative has to be managing complexity.

    Code Complete

    The abstract nature of software poses few physical constraints on the size, interconnectivity, and information locality – in other words, the complexity – of software system. Due to this, and a variety of other factors, software development is still difficult and many software engineering practices, although not a panacea, can help impose the limitations on complexity that are needed.

What Is Programming, Then?

As with any form of logical or creative work, computer science is not easy – certainly, that is part of what makes it interesting. The wide variety of subfields offer many avenues of exploration, and collectively have the potential to provide value to virtually all industries and fields of study. On the practical end sits the humble programmer, whose job it is to create this value. So, what is programming, then?

Programming is the act of, and the discipline associated with, taking an abstract task or idea and materializing it in the form of useful software.

The possibilities are boundless.

Let the learning commence!